i3upgrade aims at the intelligent and integrated upgrade of carbon sources in steel industries through hydrogen intensified synthesis processes. In contrast to established synthesis processes, the project targets direct methanation and methanol synthesis of by-products in steel works under dynamic and transient conditions being operated by advanced control strategies. Agent-based modelling demonstrates the opportunities for reduction of CO2 emissions in steel works in the framework of emerging volatile markets. The final proof-of-concept of the new control strategies will be performed with real bottled steel mill gases as well as with a complex gas matrix from an existing gasifier.

Overall approach of i³upgrade: Comparison of schematic carbon flows inside an integrated steel works at the state-of-the-art (left) and the approach in i³upgrade (right) with carbon upgrade through hydrogen intensified synthesis


The original research article on “Design and Implementation of an Additively Manufactured Reactor Concept for the Catalytic Methanation” has been published by Alexander Hauser et a. in the journal Applied Sciences. Open access is possible via the MDPI website.

The original research article on “Appication-based catalytic methanation of steelworks gases under dynamic operating conditions” has been published by Philipp Wolf-Zöllner et a. in the Journal of Cleaner Production. Open access is possible via the Elsevier website.

The original research article on “Economic Evaluation of Renewable Hydrogen Integration into Steelworks for the Production of Methanol and Methane” has been published by Michael Bampaou et al. in the MDPI journal Energies. Open access is possible via the MDPI website.