i3upgrade aims at the intelligent and integrated upgrade of carbon sources in steel industries through hydrogen intensified synthesis processes. In contrast to established synthesis processes, the project targets direct methanation and methanol synthesis of by-products in steel works under dynamic and transient conditions being operated by advanced control strategies. Agent-based modelling demonstrates the opportunities for reduction of CO2 emissions in steel works in the framework of emerging volatile markets. The final proof-of-concept of the new control strategies will be performed with real bottled steel mill gases as well as with a complex gas matrix from an existing gasifier.

Overall approach of i³upgrade: Comparison of schematic carbon flows inside an integrated steel works at the state-of-the-art (left) and the approach in i³upgrade (right) with carbon upgrade through hydrogen intensified synthesis


The original research article on "Integration of Renewable Hydrogen Production in Steelworks Off-Gases for the Synthesis of Methanol and Methane" has been published by Michael Bampaou et al. in the MDPI journal Energies. Open access is possible via the MDPI Website.

The original research article on "Dynamic hydrogen-intensified methanation of synthetic by-product gases from steelworks" has been published by Alexander Hauser et al. in the Elesevier journal Fuel Processing Technology. Open access is possible via Sciencedirect.